Vietnamese Mature Women
French Captain Louis de Grandmaison claimed that these Vietnamese women did not want to go back to Vietnam and they had families in China and were better off in China. Vietnamese women were in demand because of a lower number of Chinese women available in China and along the borderlands of China there were many Chinese men who had no women and needed Vietnamese women.
Vietnamese women in the Red River delta were taken to China by Chinese recruitment agencies as well as Vietnamese women who were kidnapped from villages which were raided by Vietnamese and Chinese pirates. The Vietnamese women became wives, prostitutes, or slaves.
There was massive demand for Vietnamese women in China. The Vietnamese children and women were kidnapped and brought to China to become slaves by both Chinese and Vietnamese pirates. The anti-French Can Vuong rebels were the source of the Vietnamese bandits while former Taiping rebels were the source of the Chinese rebels.
These Vietnamese and Chinese pirates fought against the French colonial military and ambushed French troops, receiving help from regular Chinese soldiers to fight against the French. The heroine's true love was a member of the nationalist party. According to this book and other authors like Phan Boi Chau, there was an evident link between the nationalist movement and an increase in women's rights. Following the nationalist military leadership of the Trung sisters, other women became heavily involved in non-communist nationalist movements, especially in the Vietnam Nationalist Party.
By the end of the s, women's liberation had become a common topic in the literature written by urban intellectual elites, and women had entered political life. The Lao Dong Party claims to have advanced women's rights by publicizing Vietnamese women's achievements and allowing women to serve in the government and communist delegations.
The party advocated and pushed for greater equality between the sexes, and said that the prior wave of women's liberation movements in the upper bourgeoisie during the s was more of an advocacy for quick divorce, and did not attempt to liberate women as a whole. They timidly suggested that the woman be trained in certain trades 'in keeping with her femininity and not detrimental to her mission as a mother. This 'sacred mission' was in fact but domestic slavery, the drudgrey that was the lot of women in patriarchal families, which the feminists did not dare to oppose.
And they hardly dared to mention this 'risky' question: that of liberation from foreign rule. These nationalist movements stressed the idea that women were oppressed under the French occupation and espoused the idea that liberation for women could only come through a nationalist revolution.
They recognized that gender equality was an issue that cut across social lines and could be used to build nationalist support. However, when the Party Central Committee was asked to rank the ten "essential tasks of the revolution," it ranked equal rights for women as ninth and its stance on women's rights was intentionally vague. They served as nurses, guides, couriers, and propagandists. Although they were not allowed in the regular army, they fought in militia and guerrilla units on the home front.
The slogan for women in the Resistance was "Let women replace men in all tasks in the rear, which was an accurate description of their main role in the Revolution- laboring in the agricultural sector as Vietnamese men fought for Vietnam's independence from the French. The Revolution did not result in immediate empowerment, as only 10 of the seats in the Nationalist Assemblies were occupied by women.
It did spread feminist ideology, however. The Vietminh were in the North, and the French and those who supported them were in the south. The North became a communist society, while the South was anti-communist and received support from the United States. Rising unrest in the South, because of religious and social intolerance by President Ngo Dinh Diem, created an opportunity for North Vietnam to try reclaiming the South.
This led to a long and bloody conflict, in which American troops became very involved. In , the Communist government was able to take over South Vietnam, despite the American bombing of Northern cities. This division did not remain for long, though, and the two sides were united in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in The Woman's Union also received a governmental guarantee that they would be consulted before the government implemented any policies that could affect women's health.
The paid maternity leave for government employees, which was extended from three to six months, was changed back to three months a few years after its passing. Vietnam was slowly extending greater rights to females.
In , the state of Vietnam was created during the first Indochina War, in which Vietnam attempted to gain independence from France. A move towards equality was evident in the original constitution of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, which stated that "women are equal to men in all respects.
The Marriage and Family Law made further progress as it worked on ending systems of concubines, child marriage and forced marriage. While these changes occurred in large part because socialist leaders wanted women to be able to work in the industrial and agricultural sectors, they did promote rapid change in women's traditional roles. Under the socialist regime, both male and female literacy increased.
They took roles such as village patrol guards, intelligence agents, propagandists, and military recruiters. Historically, women have become "active participants" in struggles to liberate their country from foreign occupation, from Chinese to French colonialists. This character and spirit of Vietnamese women were first exemplified by the conduct of the Trung sisters, one of the "first historical figures" in the history of Vietnam who revolted against Chinese control.
North Vietnamese women were enlisted and fought in the combat zone and provided manual labor to keep the Ho Chi Minh trail open. They also worked in the rice fields in North Vietnam and Viet Cong-held farming areas in South Vietnam's Mekong Delta region to provide food for their families and the communist war effort.
Some women also served for the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong intelligence services. Some, like in the WAFC, fought in combat with other soldiers. Others have served as nurses and doctors in the battlefield and in military hospitals, or served in South Vietnam or America's intelligence agencies.
In order to boost morale among male soldiers, North Vietnamese women were recruited from youth volunteer groups to drive truckloads of soldiers up and down the Ho Chi Minh trail, while American pilots were conducting bombing raids. The purpose of this was to show the male soldiers that if women can do it, they could as well. The Chinese held 1, Vietnamese prisoners and the Vietnamese held Chinese prisoners; they were exchanged in May—June After surrendering, they were transferred by the Vietnamese soldiers to a prison.
The Chinese prisoners reported that they were subjected to torturous and inhuman treatment, such as being blindfolded and having their bodies bound and restrained with metal wire.
Vietnamese women soldiers made up one-third of the guards who held the Chinese male prisoners captive in the prison. The revolutionary socialist government in the North wanted to enhance social equity, sometimes by improving women's rights. The Marriage and Family Law, for example, banned forced marriage, child marriage, wife beating, and concubinage.
They did this for the purpose of industrial development. They promoted the power of the Women's Union, which pushed for women's rights but also rallied support for the Communist government's new laws. The government of North Vietnam influenced the role of women during the war of reunification during the mids, when mobilizing women was viewed as crucial to winning the war.
During this time, the Women's Union encouraged women to fulfill three main responsibilities. These were: encouraging their male relatives to fight in the war, taking all of the household burdens on themselves, and taking jobs in the industrial and agricultural workforces. Most of these quotas were filled by the s. They passed this resolution because, with so many Vietnamese men away at war, they needed more women to support the economy. When the war ended, female involvement decreased, actually sinking below its pre-war involvement rates.
The Family Law of doubled the length of maternity leave from three to six months, while the Council of Minster's Decision number gave the Women's Union the right to be involved in any decision relevant to the welfare of women or children. However, the desire for economic efficiency under the free market reforms of the new regime caused some of these reforms to be scaled back. Maternity leave, for example, was shortened to four months when employers began complaining that they lost money by hiring women.
There are no other organizations like the Women's Union, as the Vietnamese government is very careful about the nongovernmental organizations they allow to exist. The Vietnamese Women's Association exists largely to increase the power of the Communist Party, so it is not always able to fully support women's interests.
The reunification of North and South Vietnam after the Vietnam War, in , also allowed women to take on leadership roles in politics. The new state implemented free market economics but political participation was not expanded. The tight political atmosphere and resource-constraints weakened the Vietnam Women's Union, which was accustomed to speaking on behalf of women under Vietnam's single-party rule.
After the war was over, it was no longer seen as a crucial organization by the government. There was also an increase in occupational segregation as women returned to more roles within the home and men returned from the war.
Women's participation in the economy, government, and society has increased. Traditional Confucian patriarchal values have continued to persist, as well as a continued emphasis on the family unit. This has comprised the main criticism of Vietnam Women's Union, an organization that works towards advancing women's rights. Instead of being involved in their society, women worked as trade intermediaries and were expected to marry and become housewives.
A common belief was that after the mid-twenties, women were considered undesirable and marriage was a way of life. The cap for marriage was at this age because after this time, women could no longer bear children, a necessity for the survival of the family name. In addition, the notion of "a one-person, self-sufficient household was not very acceptable"  and was looked at as selfish and lonely.
After the age of twenty-five, single women enter a period where they "make the transition from temporary to permanent non-marriage. They were happy with their decision to opt out of a possible "miserable" life with a husband. From a young age, the eldest child of a Vietnamese family had a variety of obligations to uphold. One of which was having to care for their younger siblings. Still, I am fine with it.. But when I was on the train absolutely no one spoke a single word of english, which is also okay, I manage to make my way trough Vietnam regardless , and the train was about to get in to Ninh Binh Railway Station, two women, one of the a staff member on the train, sat down in my cabin I shared with a vietnamese woman , and the train worker even sat down in my bunk without even giving me a look.
They all obviously talked about me, then at the end, the female train worker started to feel my thigh and gently stroking it while looking at me, before she pulled her hand back with no shame and continued to talk to her "besties".
Is this normal behaviour for the vietnamese who doesn't see many whities? Or was this weird?